Carb-loading before events such as marathons and triathlons have been a popularized and heavily utilized strategy for probably as long as these events have existed. And this is for good reason too. Many studies, beginning as early as the late ‘30s, were examining the phenomenon of how higher glycogen (usable form of glucose) stores in the muscle played a key component in exercise bouts lasting longer than 90 minutes . Researchers then began to discover that higher carbohydrate intake, specifically timed around endurance competitions, improved common endurance parameters such as time to exhaustion (TTE) and VO2 max in cyclists . It’s a tried-and-true method to improving your performance in these long-distance, long-duration endeavors.
Or is it?
As time has gone on and our understanding of sports performance has improved, has a more superior method of fueling before competition emerged?
Well, with the ongoing trend of the ketogenic (keto) diet over the past few years, it looks like carb-loading may have met its match. Let’s dive into both carbohydrate and fat fueling before endurance competitions and see which one reigns supreme.
Holding On To Our Commonly-Held Beliefs
Sports nutritionists have advocated high-carbohydrate diets for endurance athletes for quite some time now. These recommendations are made mostly because of studies that were released between the ‘70s and the early 2000s, indicating that low-carbohydrate diets impair endurance performance by increasing perceptions of fatigue in the athlete [3,4,5].
However, just like anything in science, there are very few things that have such black-and-white answers to them. One study measured the level of intensity of elite cyclists after following 6 days of a low-carbohydrate diet . They found that levels of fat oxidation (the utilization of fat for energy) were increased significantly in the cyclists even after this short-term, low-carbohydrate diet. What this entails is that the athletes were able to more efficiently utilize fat for energy production, even in the absence of carbohydrates.
Another interesting finding by researchers is that long-term adherence to a low-carbohydrate diet (9-36 months) may be just as effective as a high-carbohydrate diet, while also providing various metabolic advantages to the athlete, such as reduced appetite, and a decrease of blood sugar . It was found that when elite cyclists followed a low-carbohydrate, high-fat diet (keto), time to exhaustion was not affected as compared to a standard high-carb diet . Surprisingly, even though the cyclists had lower levels of muscle glycogen after following the low-carb diet, their levels of muscle glycogen were similar to the high-carbohydrate group post-exercise. This indicates that a high-fat diet may be just as effective in providing fuel for the body during endurance activities are carbohydrates are.
Could Keto Possibly Be Even Better Than High-Carbs?
It turns out that those who are “fat-adapted” (those who have been following the keto diet for at least 6 months) may perform better than those on a standard high-carb diet. Because those who follow the keto diet have a higher fat oxidation rate, this causes something called a glycogen sparing effect . What this basically means is that the keto-adapted athlete would be able to maintain a high standard of intensity, while having the ability to preserve their muscle glycogen for when they really need it, such as when they need to sprint to the finish line at the end of a race. However, this is only speculation, as the research on keto and athletes in general is quite limited.
The Problem With a High-Fat Diet
The keto diet has been around for decades, being utilized for primarily for children who suffer from seizures, caused by something called GLUT1 deficiency, which is when the body lacks the ability to metabolize glucose as it crosses the blood-brain-barrier.
However, the keto diet is still in its infancy in the athletic world. Most of the studies have not started to develop until the 90s and 2000s. While on the other hand, the traditional high-carbohydrate model has been studied ever since the ‘30s.
Because of this, there are still many aspects of the keto diet in conjunction with endurance performance that remain unexplored. This includes how being “fat-adapted” affects one’s central fatigue and their perception of fatigue during exercise, the optimal composition of the types of fatty acids to eat on the diet, such as saturated, polyunsaturated, and monounsaturated fats, among many other variables.
Lastly, most of the studies that actually are out there are focused on utilizing the diet as a means to control body composition over the long term. There aren’t many out there that utilize it in a shorter time frame, such as replacing carbs with fats in order to see how “fat-loading” would differ from a traditional “carb-load” before an endurance competition.
The Bottom Line
Fortunately, with keto being a popular trend for quite some time now, this creates a higher demand for research regarding its application in endurance activities.
But for now, you have to do what all true scientists do, and that is to use yourself as your own guinea pig and test it out on yourself. Before one event, use a carb-load, and before the next event, use a fat-load, and see how each one affects you.
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- Christensen EH, Hansen O. Arbeitsfahigkeit und Errichtung. Skandinavische Archlv fUr Physiologie 1939; 8: 160-71
- Bergstrom J, Hermansen L, Hultman E, et al. Diet, muscle glycogen and physical performance. Acta Physiol Scand 1967; 71: 140-50
- Karlsson J, Saltin B.. Diet, muscle glycogen, and endurance performance. J Appl Physiol. 1971;31:203–206.
- Walker JL, Heigenhauser GJ, Hultman E, Spriet LL.. Dietary carbohydrate, muscle glycogen content, and endurance performance in well-trained women. J Appl Physiol. 2000;88:2151–2158.
- White AM, Johnston CS, Swan PD, Tjonn SL, Sears B.. Blood ketones are directly related to fatigue and perceived effort during exercise in overweight adults adhering to low-carbohydrate diets for weight loss: a pilot study. J Am Diet Assoc. 2007;107:1792–1796.
- Burke LM, Hawley JA.. Effects of short-term fat adaptation on metabolism and performance of prolonged exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2002;34:1492–1498
- Volek JS, Noakes T, Phinney SD.. Rethinking fat as a fuel for endurance exercise. Eur J Sport Sci. 2015;15:13–20.
- Phinney SD, Bistrian BR, Evans WJ, Gervino E, Blackburn GL Metabolism. 1983 Aug; 32(8):769-76.
- Langfort J, Pilis W, Zarzeczny R, Nazar K, Kaciuba-Uscilko H.. Effect of low-carbohydrate-ketogenic diet on metabolic and hormonal responses to graded exercise in men. J Physiol Pharmacol. 1996;47:361–371.
When we’re training, we want to bring our best. We want to make sure we’re giving it our 110% each and every time we’re going into our training sessions. You make sure that your diet is on point as well, always hitting your calorie and macronutrient targets for the day. With all those set in proper working order, is there anyway else that we can increase our endurance and power during our training sessions? The answer to that is yes.
Enter supplementation… And no, I’m not going to try to sell you on some magical formula that has even been shown to give the slightest benefits in the scientific literature. I’m going to present you with only what’s worth your investment. These supplements that I’m about to present to you have actually demonstrated their worth in the literature. And to top it off, they’re quite affordable as well. Let’s get right into it.
An amino acid that is the building block of another amino acid called carnosine, this supplement has proven its merit time and time again for being a fantastic endurance builder.
A meta-analysis on beta-alanine showed a median increase of 2.85% in exercise bouts that lasted between 60-240 seconds . This was primarily measured by a variable called “time to exhaustion.” The subjects who took beta-alanine were able to last 2.85% longer than those who didn’t during exercise bouts that lasted 60-240 seconds. Although it may not sound like much, this figure is quite impressive for a supplement working on its own accord.
An important thing to note here is that the benefits of beta-alanine greatly diminish when utilized either below or above the preceding time frame. So bouts under 1 minute or over 4 minutes won’t see too much of an improvement.
Dose: 5 grams pre-workout
Unfortunately, there’s little evidence to support that creatine is all that effective for muscular endurance performance. But, what we definitely do see is a dramatic increase in anaerobic power.
One study took recreationally active men and took them through 5 sets of 2-minute bouts with 1-minute rest in between on a cycle ergometer. After multiple testing sessions, it was shown that the creatine group increased by 6.72% compared to the placebo and control groups, which, again, is quite dramatic for a supplement protocol .
This next study fits in perfectly with our previously discussed supplement beta-alanine. They tested for strength via bench press and squat, power output via Wingate anaerobic test and 20-minute jump test, as well as body composition measures . They observed a mild but significant increase in testosterone, which was attributed solely by creatine. The researchers also saw positive adaptations in fat mass and lean body mass as a result of the synergism between the two supplements. And as for the power testing, the increase was mostly attributed to the effects of creatine. Remember, beta-alanine is only effective for bouts in the 60-240 second range, so that can be hypothesized as the reason why we didn’t see a contribution from it here. However, as future research is released, we will most likely see the benefits of supplementing with both of these ingredients together.
Dose: 5 grams pre-workout
A staple in many people’s lives already, whether it be through diet such as coffee or supplementally through pre-workout products. This timeless stimulant has proven time and time again that it is a major player in increasing both endurance and power.
As it pertains to power, subjects witnessed increases in their power output on the squat and bench press when given a dose of 3mg/kg of body weight . However, improvement was not seen when subjects only consumed 1mg/kg of body weight. So it’s important to experiment with the dosage, as tolerance to this stimulant is widely variable among individuals.
As far as endurance performance goes, it shows us its magic as well. This is illustrated in a study with 16 elite cyclists; where both 3mg/kg and 6mg/kg doses were given. Both doses showed improvements over the placebo group . What’s interesting about these dosages are that the higher dose didn’t create any greater of an increase in performance than the 3mg/kg dose did. In fact, the 3 mg/kg dose showed a 4.2% improvement while the 6mg/kg dose showed only a 2.9% improvement. Again, as mentioned earlier, this is most likely due to differences in tolerances between individuals. Plus, this proves to us that more is not always better.
Dose: Experiment with what works best for your body, but 3mg/kg seems to be the sweet spot for most athletes.
You don’t really hear much about this one, at least in the sports supplement world anyway. But it works quite well for increasing endurance performance, so take notes.
Talking about elite cyclists once again, one particular study used this supplement to test their performance on a 16.1 km cycling time-trial performance . They took 1 gram 4 times a day before the time-trial. What they saw was a slight elevation of VO2 max and mean power output. The researchers believe this supplement works by enhancing the red blood cell’s ability to get oxygen to the working muscles, in this case, primarily the quadriceps.
Other studies have noted in maximal oxygen uptake; between 6-12%! . Again, what we must remember here is that although these figures may appear small, these are not drugs! Supplements on their own that show improvements even above 1% above normal are something I’d keep in my arsenal for sure!
Dose: 4 grams per day split into separate doses throughout the day about 1 week before your endurance event.
There you have it. Four supplements that are definitely worth a try if you haven’t given them a shot already. Remember, proper training and diet comes first! Then, and only then, you should add in these supplements. When all that is in order, then you’ll see that these supplements will give you that marginal gain you need over your competition.
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- Hobson, R. M., Saunders, B., Ball, G., Harris, R. C., & Sale, C. (2012). Effects of β-alanine supplementation on exercise performance: A meta-analysis. Amino Acids, 43(1), 25-37. doi:10.1007/s00726-011-1200-z
- Kendall, K. L., Graef, J. L., Fukuda, D. H., Smith, A. E., Moon, J. R., Beck, T. W., . . . Stout, J. R. (2010). The Effects Of Four Weeks Of High-Intensity Interval Training And Creatine Supplementation On Critical Power And Anaerobic Working Capacity In College-Aged Men. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 24, 1. doi:10.1097/01.jsc.0000367145.78325.43
- Hoffman, J. R., Ratamess, N. A., Kang, J., Mangine, G., Faigenbaum, A. D., & Stout, J. R. (2006). Effect of Creatine and β-Alanine Supplementation on Performance and Endocrine Responses in Strength/Power Athletes. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 38(Supplement). doi:10.1249/00005768-200605001-01454
- Coso, J. D., Salinero, J. J., González-Millán, C., Abián-Vicén, J., & Pérez-González, B. (2012). Dose response effects of a caffeine-containing energy drink on muscle performance: A repeated measures design. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 9(1). doi:10.1186/1550-2783-9-21
- Desbrow, B., Biddulph, C., Devlin, B., Grant, G. D., Anoopkumar-Dukie, S., & Leveritt, M. D. (2012). The effects of different doses of caffeine on endurance cycling time trial performance. Journal of Sports Sciences, 30(2), 115-120. doi:10.1080/02640414.2011.632431
- Folland, J. P., Stern, R., & Brickley, G. (2008). Sodium phosphate loading improves laboratory cycling time-trial performance in trained cyclists. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 11(5), 464-468. doi:10.1016/j.jsams.2007.04.004
- Czuba, M., Zając, A., Poprzecki, S., & Cholewa, J. (2008). The Influence of Sodium Phosphate Supplementation on VO2max, Serum 2,3-diphosphoglycerate Level and Heart Rate in Off-road Cyclists. Journal of Human Kinetics, 19(1), 149-164. doi:10.2478/v10078-008-0012-z
Thank you to TrainingPeaks for giving me the opportunity to speak about working with time-crunched athletes on their CoachCast podcast! I think things went pretty well considering I have been sleep deprived with a 2 month old – did someone mention being time-crunched!?
The episode is available on the web, Spotify, Stitcher, Google Play Music, and Apple Podcasts. If you would like to give it a listen, please click the picture below and let me know what you think!
As a cyclist, or endurance athlete, you are probably already snacking mid training in addition to fueling up both before and after your training session. But, what are you fueling your body with? If you find it difficult to find healthy food options that also fit into your cycling jersey pocket, then it may be time to make some recipes yourself.
I am often asked how much and what to eat both before during and after exercise, but there is also a lot of confusion surrounding store-bought “healthy” sports training snacks. Things like carb-rich gel packs, jerky, or sports bars may be packing in more added sugar and artificial ingredients than you would actually want in your diet.
I have come up with a list of five homemade foods that you can make with minimal effort, and with just a handful of ingredients, that will fit right into your cycling jersey pocket. You can ditch the store-bought sports snacks, and refuel with these options instead.
Five Homemade Foods to Refuel During Training That Fit Into a Cycling Jersey Pocket
#1 Homemade Exercise Bar: Sports or other granola bars are notoriously known for having tons of added sugar not to mention artificial ingredients. Some may even contain gluten, dairy, and soy which are three of the most common food allergens. So, if you are on the lookout for a dairy, soy, gluten, and refined-sugar free sports bar, try making this recipe yourself.
Makes: 8 bars
- 1 cup of raw cashews (you can swap these out for almonds as well)
- 1 cup of rolled oats
- ½ cup almond butter (use Sunbutter for a nut-free version)
- ½ cup unsweetened dried cranberries
- ¼ cup raw honey
- 2 Tbsp. chia seeds
- 2 Tbsp. hemp seeds
- 1 pinch of pink Himalayan sea salt
- Add the raw cashews, rolled oats, and almond butter to a food processor or high-speed blender and blend until combined.
- Add in the remaining ingredients and blend until the mixture comes together.
- Scoop into an 8X8 baking pan (greased with coconut oil) and refrigerate for about an hour or until hard.
- Cut into small bars that will fit into your cycling jersey pocket.
- Wrap in unbleached parchment paper and store in the fridge until you are ready to head out for your ride.
Nutritional Breakdown (Nutritional information is for 1 energy bar and this recipe makes a total of 8)
Net Carbs: 22g
#2 Bite-Sized Energy Bites: Energy bites are a super popular way to refuel the body after an intense workout or just to enjoy as a filling snack. You can make smaller energy bites than what you would typically make in order to fit a handful into your cycling jersey pocket. Here’s an easy recipe to help you get started.
- 1 cup of raw cashews
- 20 pitted Medjool dates
- ¼ cup pure maple syrup
- ¼ cup raw unsweetened cocoa powder
- 2 Tbsp. chia seeds
- 1 tsp. Pure vanilla extract
- 1 pinch of pink Himalayan sea salt
- Add the cashews, dates, and pure maple syrup to a food processor or high-speed blender. Blend until the mixture comes together.
- Add the remaining ingredients blending until combined.
- Transfer the mixture to a large glass mixing bowl and refrigerate for about 20 minutes or until the dough is easier to work with.
- Form into small bite-sized bites that you can wrap in unbleached parchment paper and toss into your cycling jersey pocket when you head out the door for a ride.
Nutritional Breakdown (Nutritional information is for 1 energy bite and this recipe makes a total of 10)
Net Carbs: 21g
#3 On-the-go Trail Mix: Trail mix makes for a great fuel source during training as you can pack in a healthy dose of carbs, protein, and fat. Trail mix can also easily be packed in a resealable bag and stored in your cycling jersey pocket when it’s time to refuel. Here’s a healthy trail mix recipe you can mix up before your next ride.
Makes: Approximately 3 ¾ cups one serving is ¼ cup
- 1 cup of raw almonds
- 1 cup of raw cashews
- 1 cup of pumpkin seeds
- ½ cup of dried unsweetened cranberries
- ¼ cup raw cocoa nibs
- Add everything to a large mixing bowl and toss to combine.
- Store in a glass jar, and pack a handful in a resealable bag to bring on your ride for a healthy and energizing mid-ride snack.
Nutritional Breakdown (Nutritional information is for ¼ cup serving, and this recipe makes a total of 15 servings)
Net Carbs: 4g
#4 Mini Raw Pecan Cookies: You can make these delicious raw pecan cookies without the use of refined sugar, gluten, or dairy making them a guilt-free, and healthy way to fuel the body during an intense ride.
Makes: 12 mini cookies
- 1 cup raw pecans
- 20 pitted Medjool dates
- ¼ cup pure maple syrup
- 2 Tbsp. ground flaxseeds
- 2 Tbsp. coconut butter
- 1 tsp. Pure vanilla extract
- 1 pinch of pink Himalayan sea salt
- Add the pecans, pitted Medjool dates, and pure maple syrup to a food processor or high-speed blender and blend until the mixture comes together.
- Add the remaining ingredients and blend until well combined.
- Place in a glass jar in the fridge for about 20 minutes.
- Roll into mini bite-sized rounds and then flatten to shape like a cookie.
- Store in the fridge until ready to head out on your ride. Wrap in unbleached parchment paper and place in your cycling jersey pocket for a quick nutritious and energy replenishing snack.
Nutritional Breakdown (Nutritional information is for 1 mini cookie and this recipe makes a total of 12)
Net Carbs: 15g
#5 Roasted Chickpeas: Chickpeas are an excellent source of plant-based protein and a great complex carbohydrate choice for endurance athletes. This crunchy snack will serve as a convenient option you can store right in your cycling jersey pocket to snack on mid-ride.
Serves: 3 (approximately ½ cup per serving)
- 1 (12 ounce) can of chickpeas
- 2 Tbsp. melted coconut oil
- 1 pinch of pink Himalayan sea salt
- Preheat the oven to 450 degrees F and line a baking sheet with parchment paper.
- Drain and rinse the chickpeas and pat dry with a paper towel.
- Pour the chickpeas out onto the parchment-lined baking sheet and drizzle with the coconut oil and season with the salt.
- Bake for about 30 minutes, checking at the 20-minute mark to make sure that they don’t burn.
- Store in a glass jar until ready to pack in a resealable bag to take on your ride.
Nutritional Breakdown (Nutritional information is for a ½ cup serving)
Net Carbs: 22g
Snacking during a long training session or during a race is essential for keeping your energy levels up to fuel your workout. Try one, or all of these, homemade snack options instead of the processed and sugar-filled options you would find at the store. These snacks will conveniently fit into your cycling jersey pocket so you can easily prep these snacks, grab, and go and refuel as needed throughout your ride.
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One of the most frequently asked questions I get when it comes to nutrition and endurance training is what to eat after a training session. Between all the mixed information out there it can be confusing to figure out whether you should be eating a snack immediately after a workout, or if you should hold out until your next meal where you can fuel up on something a little more substantial.
Read on to learn about exactly how to nourish your body best after a training session as well as when exactly you should be eating to promote post-workout recovery.
What Should You Eat After a Workout?
This is the question that so many endurance athletes ask, and something I want to break down. What you eat after a workout matters, and it matters in a big way. What you eat after working out is going to play a role in your body’s ability to replenish glycogen stores as well as support energy levels and muscle recovery. For this reason, you are going to want to focus on getting enough complex carbohydrates, and protein in your post-workout meal. Adding some healthy fat into the mix is also helpful to support energy levels and boost the absorption of fat-soluble vitamins.
Let’s take a look at each macronutrient and break down which foods are best post-training.
Carbs: Carbs are essential both pre and post training to help support energy levels. Carbs are going to be what fuels your body during training and what gives you that immediate source of energy. However, it’s important to keep in mind that not all carbs are created equal, so you don’t want to go fueling up on super sugary foods. Instead, you will want to refuel on complex carbs post-workout, read on for specific food recommendations.
Studies have found that combining carbohydrates with protein within 1-3 hours post-workout supports better muscle protein synthesis. So, it is best to pair a complex carb with a high-quality protein source after your training session for optimal recovery.
Protein: As we just talked about, pairing protein with complex carbs after training can improve muscle recovery, so you will definitely want to add some high-quality protein into your post-workout meal. Getting enough protein after a workout is also important to help with muscle growth. Studies have shown that getting just 20 grams of protein after training is enough to promote muscle protein synthesis. You can easily get this in a post-workout meal, or a protein shake made with a high-quality collagen or grass-fed whey protein powder.
Fat: Last but not least is fat. Fat often receives a bad reputation for inhibiting the absorption of nutrients in your post-workout meal, but this really isn’t the case. Adding fat to your meal may slow down the absorption of the meal, but it will not take away from all of the benefits of those nutrient dense foods you are consuming. So, adding some healthy fat to your meal after your workout can be beneficial, and may help give you an energy boost while also helping the body absorb any fat-soluble vitamins present in your post-workout meal.
When Should You Eat After a Workout?
In addition to what you should be eating after working out, another big question is when. Should you eat immediately, or is it ok to wait a little bit?
Timing is important because you need to replenish those glycogen stores you burned through during training. These glycogen stores are often depleted pretty quickly with endurance training, so you will want to enjoy a carbohydrate-rich meal or snack within two hours of your workout. Eating within an appropriate amount of time plays a super important role in restoring those energy reserves as well as rebuilding muscle tissue.
A meal rich in carbohydrates that is easily absorbed and digested right after intense exercise can also help support what’s called glycogen resynthesis which involves glycogen replenishment post endurance training. Studies have found that endurance athletes can achieve total muscle glycogen resynthesis within 24 hours when consuming an average of 500-700 grams of carbohydrates over that time frame.
Since glycogen resynthesis tends to be at its peak within the first two hours after training, you can boost glycogen resynthesis by consuming 0.70g glucose/kg body weight every two hours.
However, chances are, you are going to be hungry and want to grab something to eat much sooner than that two-hour mark, so listen to your body.
Post-Workout Food Options
To help break this all down, here is a guide for some great post-workout recovery food options. You will notice there are options for a full post-workout meal, and some will serve best as an easy to prepare post-workout snack. If you only have time to make a shake, or enjoy a grab and go snack, that’s okay, just be sure to fuel up on a balanced meal within that two-hour time frame after training.
- Post-Workout Shake: Make a post-workout shake with almond milk (or any other nut milk of choice), a frozen banana, one cup of frozen blueberries, one scoop of collagen protein, one cup of unsweetened full-fat Greek yogurt, two teaspoons of raw honey, one tablespoon of almond butter, and a sprinkle of hemp seeds.
- Eggs & Fruit: Three hard-boiled eggs with a side of fresh fruit and a handful of almonds.
- Oats & Berries: One cup of rolled oats, One Tbsp. almond butter, One cup of blueberries.
- Avocado Toast: One slice of toast with ½ avocado, a sprinkle of hemp seeds, and a pinch of pink Himalayan sea salt.
- Chicken Breast & Veggies: Grilled chicken breast with bell pepper and cubed sweet potato.
- Hummus with Veggies & Pita Bread: ½ cup hummus with mixed veggies (bell pepper, cucumber, carrot sticks, celery stalks) and a gluten-free pita.
- Quinoa Bowl: One cup of cooked quinoa with ½ sliced avocado, ½ tomato, and a drizzle of tahini with a pinch of pink Himalayan sea salt.
The Bottom Line
Refueling your body with the right foods within the right time frame after training can make a huge difference in your body’s ability to recover. It can also significantly help with new muscle growth as it’s important to replenish the muscle tissues with enough protein to repair themselves. Nutrition after an intense training session can also be the key to support an increase in energy levels, so if you find yourself completely fatigued after a workout, you may need to amp up your post-workout meal with added carbs, protein, and healthy fat.
Try out a few or all of these post-workout food combos to see which ones work best for you, and which ones make your body feel the best. Once you find which ones work, alternate them to diversify your diet and provide your body with the nutrients it needs for optimal muscle and energy recovery after each training session.
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The ramp test has been regaining popularity for the past couple of years, and for good reason: it takes less time, is slightly less painful, and yields similar results. However, is it a better way predict FTP compared to the 20 minute version? Why do some people have a drastically different ramp test results compared to their 20 minute results? Which one should you use? This blog post will attempt to answer all of those questions, and provide some of the science behind ‘why’ there is a difference.
What is a Ramp Test?
A ramp test is exactly what it sounds like – an athlete starts at a given wattage (typically 100w) and ‘ramps’ up their power every 1 to 3 minutes (typically in 20w increments) until failure is reached. Here is what I do with my athletes:
- Warm up for 10-15 minutes.
- Having a smart trainer makes life much easier here.
- I start my athletes off at 60% of their FTP, and increase by 8% every minute or 2 (based on athlete fitness), until failure is reached.
- Once you settle into a cadence of your choice you must maintain that cadence, or pedal faster, throughout the rest of the test. For instance, if you ride at 90 RPM for the test you can’t then have your cadence fall off to 85, 80 and eventually 75 RPM in the final stages. Once you can’t maintain your cadence the test is over, but you must push to the point of failure and not give up!
You are looking for a heart rate inflection point for this test. The inflection point signals the anaerobic threshold (FTP) and can be very hard to see in my experience. Another way is to take the last COMPLETED step of the test, and multiply this by .75. This test is also called a Conconi Test.
This seems simple enough to get right, but the research around the ramp test is inconclusive. Furthermore, the majority of the “results” are inaccurate with Carey (2002) finding “a rather low correlation coefficient (r = 0.458), high standard error of estimate (SEE = 10.7 b·min-1), and high total error (TE = 16.7 b·min1)” compared to a computer-assessed decoupling point.
So, the ramp test has issues in terms of validation, and overall accuracy for some athletes, but why is that?
A Crash Course in Energy Systems
The 2 main energy systems at work during an FTP test are the aerobic and anaerobic – also called oxidative and glycolytic. Well-trained endurance athletes have a very high VO2 max (aerobic system), which enables them to ‘oxidize’ fat at a very high percentage of their FTP. There is always a flip side to the coin though – having a well developed aerobic system results in a down regulation of the anaerobic system. This anaerobic system, or the maximum rate of energy production by the ‘glycolytic’ system is sometimes designated by the term VLamax, or maximum production of lactate. In reality this is the maximum rate of production of pyruvate and lactate but since lactate is what is measured “La” has been used for this term. Clear as mud, right?
You’ll remember from a recent article about the Sweet Spot vs. Zone 2 debate in which I detail the change in lactate production from aerobic to anaerobic energy production:
In exercise where lots of oxygen is present (aerobic) your body will produce more pyruvate and less lactate. When you continue to push yourself into the higher power zones and above your lactate threshold, oxygen levels in the cells will decrease and you will go into anaerobic energy production, thus producing increased lactate and decreased pyruvate. Continue to push harder and the levels of lactate produced will continue to increase while pyruvate levels decrease. I.e. the fuel ‘mixture’ (substrate) of fat (pyruvate) to carbohydrate (lactate) changes as an athlete works closer to their individual lactate threshold.
This down-regulation of the anaerobic system means an aerobically dominant athlete will not be able to sustain supra-threshold work for long, but can sustain around FTP for upwards of 60 minutes. In comparison, an anaerobically dominant athlete will be able to push much further over FTP, and not crumble due to their ability to produce a ton more ATP (energy) via glycolysis. Think of a Tour de France climber compared to a track sprinter – they both ride bikes, yes, BUT are completely different ‘under the hood’.
Fortunately, we now have an ability to closely model the amount of work an athlete can perform above their FTP via WKO4. This is called FRC, or functional reserve capacity.
What is FRC?
FRC can be defined as:
Dr. Andrew Coggan
The total amount of work that can be done during continuous exercise above FTP before fatigue occurs.
We measure this ‘work’ in kilojoules (kJ), or J/kg. Below, are the approximate standards for FRC.
As you can see from above, the range of ability to perform work above FTP is massive from one athlete to another. With the range in males being 9.0 kJ-35.1 kJ, and females being 6.2 kJ-24.2 kJ. Also, this range can change over the course of a season, which is why it is important to track it, as well as manipulate your training to up-regulate or down-regulate it based on the demands of your target event. You want a relatively low FRC for more aerobically demanding events, and vice versa for more and anaerobically demanding events.
Putting it Together
Hopefully you can see why some athletes ramp tests are extremely low compared to their 20 minute FTP tests, and also why some athletes 20 minute FTP tests are much lower compared to their ramp test. Let’s create an example athlete to drive this point home, but first let’s talk energy conversions:
The energy E in kilojoules (kJ) is equal to the power P in watts (W), times the time period tin seconds (s):
E(kJ) = P(W)× t(s) / 1000
So, kilojoules = watts × seconds / 1000
or, kJ = W × s / 1000
Our athlete, Manny Watts (get it?!), has an FRC of 20 kJ with an FTP of 260w. This means once he breaks the 260w barrier, he has 20 kJ of work he can do before fatigue sets in, OR once he surpasses 260w on a ramp test, he will feel fatigued after performing 20 kJ of work. To make things simple, let’s have the ramp test increase by 20w increments every 1 minute, and let’s come into the test at 270w right after he bumps up from 250w:
270w x 1 minute = 270 x 60s /1000 = 16.2 kJ
So, Manny will feel fatigued around 18 seconds into the 290w step. This doesn’t necessarily mean total failure, just fatigue. At what point total failure will occur is hard to predict as there are a lot of factors at play, especially psychological, but this shows the size of the glycoloytic engine makes a huge difference for the ramp test results.
Utilize the Correct Test
If you have absolutely no clue what your FTP is, or are returning from injury or a long hiatus off the bike, you can use the ramp test results to predict a sustainable pace for the 20 minute FTP test. If you are testing what your Maximum Aerobic Power (MAP) is – which is beneficial to predict how well you would perform during a lead out, long sprint, or short ‘power’ climb – then the ramp test is also beneficial. Knowing what your MAP is, you will be able to better predict how hard you can push at the end of a race (when to start your sprint, and what power to target based on time til the line), how much power you can lay down and for approximately how long to create a breakaway, and if you can utilize the short and steep climbs during a race to your advantage.
However, if you are looking to see what your anaerobic threshold is (FTP) then the ramp test isn’t the way to go as it doesn’t take into account the individuality of what an athletes power is at their VO2 Max, and as discussed above, can overestimate FTP for the anaerobically strong cyclist, and underestimate FTP for the aerobically strong cyclist. Said another way, why would you use a test to predict your short duration power and try to extrapolate that out to what you can sustain for a longer duration?
The best testing protocol would be to incorporate all of the energy systems, test them individually, and create training zones based off the results – which is possible with a skilled Coach and using software like WKO4. The ‘perfect’ test has been attempted by many physiologists and coaches, but has not been perfected yet. However, I must give credit to Apex Coaching for their Sufferfest ‘4DP Test’ as that test is, in my opinion, the closest protocol yet to being able to get a look under an athletes ‘hood’ in less than an hour. Just like anything though, individualization of training, and testing protocols, makes the difference. So, I will test my sprinter-phenotype athlete’s short power more frequently, and my TT-phenotype athlete’s long duration power more frequently to ensure the training zones are correct based upon their individual metabolic system strengths. And, if I am brand new to an athlete with minimal data (which is rare these days) I will use a multi-day testing protocol to ensure they can perform each test at their maximal effort – but even this has conditional caveats like sleep, nutrition, stress, etc. from one day to the next.
The ramp test has its place, but in my opinion, it is not the best way to predict what your FTP is due to the myriad of factors discussed above, but mainly because of the individual variation for shorter duration power outputs. Besides that, the ramp test was designed to see what an athlete’s Maximum Aerobic Power (MAP) is. However, as discussed above there is no ‘perfect’ test, even in a laboratory, as everyone is different and can change by the day, week, month, and year. The best testing protocol is the one that provides the most accurate representation of the metabolic system you’re looking at, and the ramp test isn’t the best option for predicting anaerobic threshold – in my humble opinion of course.
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As a cyclist, and endurance athlete, your nutritional demands are going to be fairly significant. It’s essential to fuel your body before, during, and after training to ensure you are giving your body what it needs for sustained energy and recovery.
Whether you are a seasoned cyclist, or are just dipping your toes into the world of endurance training, nutrition is key and plays just as an important role in your training program as the actual training itself.
With that being said, let’s talk about why nutrition plays such an important role in endurance training, and then look at a go-to guide on how to nourish your body as a cyclist.
Why is Optimal Nutrition so Important?
We all know that a healthy diet is an essential part of supporting overall health, but nutrition can play such a vital role in the health of an endurance athlete for so many additional reasons. When you are exercising for long periods of time, not only are you expending a tremendous amount of energy, but you are also putting some wear and tear on your muscles and joints. It’s essential to replenish your body with calories and nutrients to restore depleted glycogen stores and to refuel those tired muscles with adequate amounts of high-quality protein.
More specifically, here are some of the main reasons nutrition plays a key role in supporting the health of a cyclist.
Your body will require additional calories when cycling:
Any form of exercise is going to burn some of the calories you take in, but when you are training for an extended period of time, you may burn through quite a bit which increases your daily calorie requirement.
For cyclists, you can determine roughly how many additional calories you may need to add to your diet by taking the miles you traveled and multiplying this by 40-50 calories. You can also use an online calorie burning calculator like this one to more precisely determine how many calories you burn (on average) each ride which can give you a better idea in terms of how many extra calories you need to be adding back into your diet. Remember though, Calories are a good guide, but not terribly accurate to determine an energy surplus or deficit.
Your Body Needs Fuel For Exercise Performance:
Your body is going to require additional energy in order to power through a long ride, and you have to fuel your body with the right foods. Carbohydrates serve as an endurance athletes primary fuel source. However, not all carbohydrates are created equal, and a huge portion of carbs right before training may give you a burst of energy, but leave you feeling lethargic shortly after. You will want to focus on getting low-glycemic carbs into your diet that won’t cause a sudden spike in blood sugar. Stick to things like whole grains, fruits, and vegetables. Eating a balanced diet with a complex carbohydrate-rich snack before a ride is a great way to maintain balanced energy levels, and prevent sudden energy plummets. It is also recommended that you consume complex carbohydrates throughout training as well to help provide the body with additional fuel to get through your ride. Snacking on a piece of fruit during training or a whole-grain, low-sugar, and whole foods based sports bar can be a great way to support energy levels.
In addition to carbohydrates, adequate protein and fats are also needed to support exercise performance. The American College of Sports Medicine recommends that athletes get about 1.2-2 grams of protein per kg of body weight per day, spaced out throughout meals and snacks. Getting enough protein in your diet is key for muscle repair as well as muscle growth.
While the majority of the focus is often on carbs and protein, cyclists also require a certain amount of healthy fat in their diet. Fats can help support the absorption of fat-soluble vitamins, and they can also provide a stable source of energy. Fat has also been found to provide a protective benefit for endurance athletes by supporting adequate calorie intake. This was studied by The University of Buffalo that found that female runners who consumed 30% of their calories from fat, were far less likely to get injured than fellow athletes that did not eat as much fat. The thought behind this has to do with the athletes meeting their caloric goals. Since fats are nutrient-dense and provide an excellent source of energy, they also provide a good amount of calories.
So what does this tell us? This tells us that cyclists and other endurance athletes should be adding a decent amount of healthy fat to their diet. Things like avocados, nuts, seeds, coconut, and wild-caught fish are all excellent sources of healthy dietary fat.
Your Body will Require Important Vitamins & Minerals:
For endurance athletes, it’s important to stay on top of your vitamin and mineral reserves. Not only can they help fuel your body for better fitness performance, but they can help keep your immune system strong. Endurance athletes may be more likely to develop deficiencies if they don’t eat a well-balanced diet full of whole and nutrient-dense foods. Be sure to get a complex carbohydrate, a healthy fat, and a clean protein source in at each meal, and try to make snacks in between training sessions as balanced as possible too. A high-quality multivitamin or greens powder to add to your daily smoothie or shake can also give your body an added boost.
Make Hydration a Priority:
While optimal nutrition is extremely important, we can’t forget about hydration. Hydration often gets overlooked, but without it, dehydration can set it. Dehydration is not only detrimental for overall health, but it can also sabotage a training session. Studies have found that a 2% drop in body weight from sweating can negatively affect your ride. Not only is it important to stay hydrated throughout the day, but it is recommended that you take 2-3 decent sized gulps of water every 10-15 minutes while on the bike. And, if you are cycling for 60-minutes or less, plain water is just fine, but anything over that, you will need to replenish your electrolytes. Coconut water is an excellent all natural source of electrolytes, or you can find natural electrolyte tablets or an electrolyte powder like Catalyte by the company Thorne that dissolve in water that doesn’t contain the added artificial coloring and ingredients many commercial sports drinks do.
The Best Foods For Cyclists
As a way to help you improve your nutrition starting today, here are some of the best foods for cyclists that you can add to your diet. Keep in mind that these foods should be enjoyed as part of a well-balanced diet. Enjoying these foods regularly is a great way to ensure that you are fueling your body with what it needs to perform, recover, and sustain the energy requirements for cycling and endurance training.
Complex Carbs: Rolled oats, quinoa, brown rice, high fiber fruits like raspberries, pears, and apples, starchy vegetables like sweet potatoes, dark leafy greens, dates, figs.
Healthy Fats: Avocados, nuts, seeds, coconut oil, wild-caught fatty fish, whole eggs.
Clean Protein: Grass-fed animal products, whole eggs, wild-caught fish, full-fat unsweetened Greek yogurt, nuts, seeds, legumes, lentils.
Now that you know everything you need to know about nourishing your body as a cyclist, let’s break this down. Here are the key points you need to know to help you kick your nutrition into high gear to help support your body for optimal training and recovery as a cyclist.
- Stay on top of your increased calorie demands,
- Enjoy complex low-glycemic carbohydrates as part of your regular diet and prior to exercise to help support energy levels.
- Make sure you are getting enough protein to support muscle recovery by getting 1.2-2 grams of protein/kg of body weight per day.
- Eat a wide variety of foods to support vitamin and mineral reserves. Take a high-quality multivitamin if necessary.
- Stay on top of hydration by staying hydrated throughout the day, and sipping on water with electrolytes (like Skratch) every 10-15 minutes during your ride.
Make nutrition a priority during endurance cycling training. With the right fuel and adequate hydration, you would be surprised at how much better you feel both during your ride and after. Don’t cheat yourself. Do yourself and your health the favor of making healthy food choices to fuel your body for optimal health and fitness performance.
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I’m sure you’ve heard this diet being thrown around in the health and fitness world as being a “fat-loss miracle” and other similar buzzwords and phrases. It’s quite trendy right now and has been for the past few years.
Intermittent fasting (IF) has several variations, but it what it comes down to is fasting a for a predetermined amount of time, followed by a “feeding window” in which you are “allowed” to eat your allotted calories and macronutrients for the day. Probably the most common type of this diet is called the 16/8; most often implemented by those in physique sports such as bodybuilding. This is where your fasting window is 16 hours long, and your feeding window is 8 hours long.
However, have you ever thought of how this diet could possibly help your performance both in competition and in practice? As more and more research has been released on the diet, scientists are examining the ways in which it not only affects performance directly but also how its metabolic effects play a role on your performance indirectly as well.
Effects on General Health and Well-Being
Before we can begin to understand how it affects our performance, let’s dive into how this diet works on our bodies.
Both human and animal model research has shown that following IF has the ability to reduce the risks of obesity and other metabolic disorders due to its effects on metabolism and biomarkers such as insulin and glucose control . Plus, the great thing about IF is that it poses no additional risk when compared to traditional calorie restriction.
Probably why this diet works well for so many people has to do with total calorie consumption. When compared to traditional dieting, those who follow IF have been shown to eat fewer calories throughout the day, sometimes eating only one meal a day! .
So for weight loss, it can definitely help those who have trouble with overeating to regulate their calories throughout the day and avoid excessive snacking. But what about for endurance athletes, does any of this play a role and provide us with any tools in improving our performance? Well, it’s a little less clear.
Effects on Aerobic Performance
Unfortunately, most of the studies out there on intermittent fasting focus on resistance training and strength sports. Either that or they focus on its general health effects, often in overweight or obese individuals.
But not to fear! There is hope! We still have data to work with.
One study that worked with elite judo athletes during Ramadan (a Muslim holiday in which they fast from sunrise to sunset) analyzed maximal aerobic capacity utilizing something called the Multistage Fitness Test . This test, more commonly known as the Beep Test, is utilized by various athletic organizations internationally. It predicts an athletes VO2 max (a staple variable in aerobic/endurance-based activities) by having them run back and forth between two lines before a beep sound is heard. The test becomes more difficult as the beeps get faster. The test ends when the athlete doesn’t reach the line in time before the beep is heard .
Interestingly, the researchers discovered that partaking in intermittent fasting during Ramadan did not cause a detriment to their performance. However, what did occur was a reduction in body weight (an average of 1.8%) and increased levels of perceived fatigue.
Now, as previously stated body weight reduction most likely has to do with eating fewer meals. The lower the frequency of meals, the more likely the athlete won’t eat as many calories. But the most compelling thing here is the result relating to perceived fatigue. This basically means that the subjects more often than not felt more tired when following this type of eating pattern compared to when they ate a normal diet. However, this happened despite a lack of drop in performance. So we’re honestly quite unsure what aspect of IF causes this phenomenon.
Here’s where it gets complicated, as other studies have illustrated varying results. In another study examining Ramadan fasting (which is one of the most practical ways to research IF in the scientific literature), professional soccer players had a 16% decrease in the total distance that they could cover during a 12-minute run . Also, another study used a test called the Leger shuttle-run to assess aerobic performance, which is similar to the Beep Test. While performance decreased during the second week of fasting, it returned to normal back during the fourth week . So the early onset of detrimental effects was not that significant when viewed over the grand scheme of things.
So What Does This All Tell Us?
From a weight loss perspective, IF appears to have great effects due to the energy deficit created from eating less meals per day. However, there’s still much work to be done with IF and its applications to aerobic and endurance performance. From the data that we have at our disposal right now, it looks like it doesn’t seem to make all that much of a difference which type of diet you follow, as long as it’s sustainable for you and is aligned with the whatever performance goal you have in mind. So experiment on yourself, see if it works, and remember the best diet (and workout plan) is the one an athlete will be most consistent with.
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1. Patterson, R. E., & Sears, D. D. (2017). Metabolic Effects of Intermittent Fasting. Annual Review of Nutrition, 37(1), 371-393. doi:10.1146/annurev-nutr-071816-064634
2. Carlson O, Martin B, Stote KS, Golden E, Maudsley S, et al. 2007. Impact of reduced meal frequency without caloric restriction on glucose regulation in healthy, normal-weight middle-aged men and women. Metabolism 56:1729–34
3. Chaouachi, A., Coutts, A. J., Chamari, K., Wong, D. P., Chaouachi, M., Chtara, M., . . . Amri, M. (2009). Effect of Ramadan Intermittent Fasting on Aerobic and Anaerobic Performance and Perception of Fatigue in Male Elite Judo Athletes. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research,23(9), 2702-2709. doi:10.1519/jsc.0b013e3181bc17fc
4. Léger, L.; Lambert, J.; Goulet, A.; Rowan, C.; Dinelle, Y. (June 1984). “[Aerobic capacity of 6 to 17-year-old Quebecois–20 meter shuttle run test with 1 minute stages]”. Journal Canadien des Sciences Appliquées Au Sport. 9 (2): 64–69
5. Zerguini, Y., Kirkendall, D., Junge, A., & Dvorak, J. (2007). Impact of Ramadan on physical performance in professional soccer players. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 41(6), 398-400. doi:10.1136/bjsm.2006.032037
6. Kirkendall, D. T., Leiper, J. B., Bartagi, Z., Dvorak, J., & Zerguini, Y. (2008). The influence of Ramadan on physical performance measures in young Muslim footballers. Journal of Sports Sciences, 26(Sup3). doi:10.1080/02640410802422199
When we think about the word electrolyte, many people think of sports drinks. Sports drinks are marketed towards athletes to help replenish the electrolytes endurance athletes will lose through sweat. However, there is much more to electrolytes and their importance than just refueling with a sports drink after training. Not only that, but there are also some healthy alternatives to traditional sports drinks.
Let’s take a look at what electrolytes are and why they are so important. We will also explore four different ways endurance athletes can replenish the electrolytes they lose during training.
What are Electrolytes?
Electrolytes play essential roles in the human body, and they help to regulate nerve as well as muscle function. They also help hydrate the body and help to balance blood pressure. Scientifically speaking, they are chemicals that when mixed with water, conduct electricity. Our muscles, as well as neurons, rely heavily on proper electrolyte balance.
The following are the electrolytes present in our body:
How are Electrolytes Balanced in the Body?
Electrolytes are kept in balance by our kidney as well as specific hormones. The kidneys help to filter electrolytes that may be in excess, and certain hormones will work to balance out the levels present in the body. We run into problems when these electrolyte concentrations are just too high for our kidneys and hormones to balance. This is when we can start to experience symptoms of an electrolyte imbalance.
The Importance of Electrolytes for Endurance Athletes
Electrolytes play such an important role when it comes to the health of the endurance athlete. If we go back to talking about how our muscles and neurons rely on electrolyte balance, it makes sense that we would experience muscle cramping if one of these electrolytes become out of balance. Not only that, but an electrolyte imbalance can also cause muscle weakness and issues with blood pressure.
While all electrolytes play an important role in the endurance athletes health, sodium, as well as potassium, happen to be the two that athletes tend to experience imbalances with most often.
Electrolyte Imbalance Symptoms
So, what exactly does an electrolyte imbalance look like? Here are some of the classic symptoms to watch out for.
- Muscle cramping
- Muscle weakness
- Fast or irregular heartbeat
Four Ways to Replenish Your Electrolytes
While we know how important proper electrolyte balance is, it’s important to understand how to balance these electrolytes. Let’s take a look at four ways to do that that doesn’t involve drinking any artificially flavored sports drinks.
#1 Homemade Electrolyte Drink: Skip the artificial sugar-filled sports drink, and make your own electrolyte drink to refuel your body after training to help nourish your body with exactly what it needs. You can whip together a healthy sports drink like this one using one quart of unsweetened coconut water, ⅛ tsp. pink himalayan sea salt, a teaspoon of calcium magnesium powder, ¼ cup of freshly squeezed orange juice, and two tablespoon of a natural sweetener like raw honey.
#2 Coconut Water: Many endurance athletes turn to coconut water instead of sugary sports drinks as it acts as an excellent all-natural electrolyte replacer. Coconut water contains sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, and phosphorus. One of the great things about coconut water is that it is super rich in potassium which can help support rehydration after intense exercise. Coconut water makes a great electrolyte replenishing beverage so long as you stick to unsweetened, and choose a natural option that doesn’t contain any added colors or artificial ingredients. Make sure you’re reading the food labels closely!
#3 Diet Counts: While we often think about beverages when it comes to replacing lost electrolytes, you can also replace some of what you lost through the foods you eat as well. Before and after training, strive to consume lots of dark leafy greens, and starchy vegetables like sweet potatoes, as well as bananas and avocados. All of these foods are rich in magnesium as well as potassium which can help bring these electrolytes up after intense training. Not only are they a great source of potassium and magnesium, but they are overall very healthy foods to add to a nutrient-dense diet to help support endurance training.
You will also want to make sure you are consuming enough hydrating foods to help prevent dehydration while restoring electrolytes. Some excellent options include cucumbers, celery, watermelon, bell peppers, and kiwis.
#4 Make an Electrolyte Replenishing Post Training Shake: Another way to help replenish your electrolytes after intense training is to blend up an electrolyte-boosting post training shake. Try blending together one cup of unsweetened almond milk, a frozen banana, one handful of dark leafy greens, a tablespoon of raw unsweetened cocoa powder, a tablespoon of chia seeds, and a pinch of pink Himalayan sea salt. You will get plenty of potassium and magnesium in this shake, and you can add a pinch of pink Himalayan sea salt to help replenish your sodium levels. You also don’t need to use pink Himalayan sea salt, but it usually contains higher levels of minerals compared to ‘table salt’.
As a breakdown of everything we talked about when it comes to the importance of electrolytes and endurance athletes, here are some key point to remember.
- During intense training, the body loses sodium and potassium fairly quickly which means we have to be mindful of how we replenish these electrolytes during and after training.
- Fatigue, dizziness, headaches, nausea, and vomiting are all common symptoms of an electrolyte deficiency.
- Ditch the sports drinks, and try making your own using coconut water as your base.
- Focus on foods to help boost your electrolytes.
- Make an electrolyte replenishing post-training shake to help replenish lost electrolytes.
The best way to prevent an electrolyte imbalance is to keep on top of your electrolytes both before, during, and after training. Sip on a homemade sports drink during training, consume an electrolyte-boosting shake after training, and add a pinch of pink Himalayan sea salt to things like dark leafy greens, and starchy vegetables. The better you keep up with your electrolyte intake, the better chance you will have at preventing the unwanted symptoms that come along with an electrolyte imbalance and feeling your best throughout your training.
If you want to make life really easy, just use what GC Coaching recommends and show our friends at Skratch Labs some ❤️
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- Nancy Choi, MD. Everything you Need to Know About Electrolytes. https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/153188.php
- American Heart Association. How Potassium Can Help Control Blood Pressure. https://www.heart.org/en/health-topics/high-blood-pressure/changes-you-can-make-to-manage-high-blood-pressure/how-potassium-can-help-control-high-blood-pressure
- Kimberly Holland. All About Electrolyte Disorders. https://www.healthline.com/health/electrolyte-disorders#symptoms
- Katie Wells. Natural Sports Electrolyte Drink Recipe. https://wellnessmama.com/2575/natural-sports-drink/
- Kyle Levers, M.S. CSCS. Nature’s Gatorade: Effectiveness of Coconut Water on Electrolyte and Carbohydrate Replacement. https://www.huffinesinstitute.org/Resources/Articles/ArticleID/413/NATURES-GATORADE-Effectiveness-of-Coconut-Water-on-Electrolyte-and-Carbohydrate-Replacement